Glossary by the author

Baile Religioso: Religious society, a brotherhood of members from several families, formed up by elders, adults, and children who, because of diverse situations, have made a promise to the Virgin or a patron saint, and expressing their faith and passion in music, singing, and dancing.


Promesero: A person keeping a promise or manda (vow) to the Divinity for some years or life-long.


Baile Chino: The oldest Atacama region promeseros brotherhood, teamed up by flautero and tamborero dancers. Their costumes evoke features from the pirquinero, the oldest artisanal miner.


Pirquinero: Person who extracts mineral substances using artisanal techniques.


Cateador: Name used for a person who walks the mountains and has observation skills for finding mineral accesses.


Peón: Used for people performing simpler, routine tasks, related to artisanal mining labors. Chino: Traditional denomination for a Baile Chino group member, representing a servant of La Chinita or La Virgen. Quechua word for ‘servant’ (Mercado, 2002).


Cantor Divino: Lieutenant or Head of Alférez Baile Chino, in charged of singing to the Virgin; representing the voice of the Baile in the face of Divinity.


Tamborero: Chino who plays tamborcillo, traditionally made from goat leather. Flautero: Chino who plays Chino Flute, traditionally made up from cane, although recently made up from plastic material (PVC). Rajío/Rajido: Name given by flautero Chino to his flute sound.


Mudanza: Choreography performed by a Baile Religioso dancers group. A Baile may present several mudanzas, or movements, according to different moments of the fest.


Instrumento grueso: A Baile Religioso band, formed by bass drums, snare drums, cymbals, and, in some cases, pitos.


Toque: Rhythm played by instrumento grueso bands, accompaning a Baile in a procession.


Bronce andino: Band formed up by brass instruments, accompanied by bass drums, snare drums, and cymbals. Traditionally found in big fests and (carnivals/parades) in Chile, Perú, and Bolivia.